National Meteorological Observations Network
The National Network of Meteorological Observations from the Republic of Moldova is composed from 14 meteorological stations and 32 posts.
The observations are carried out at 00 a.m., 3 a.m., 6 a.m., 9 a.m. 12 a.m., 3 p.m., 6 p.m. and 9 p.m. (GMT) on the following meteorological elements:
- atmospheric pressure (at sea level and at station level);
- air temperature (ordinary, maximal, minimal);
- air humidity (partial pressure, relative humidity, dew-point deficit);
- wind (direction and speed);
- meteorological visibility;
- cloudiness (type and height of clouds);
- soil surface temperature (ordinary, maximal, minimal);
- at depth soil temperature on thee sector without vegetation (at a depth of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm);
- at depth soil temperature on the sector with vegetation (at a depth 0,20, 0,40, 0,80, 1,20, 1,60, 2,40 and 3,20 m);
- snow cover (height, density, water reserves);
- atmospheric phenomena.
During 2004-2008 there were installed and put into operation 14 automatic weather stations (Chisinau, Briceni, Balti, Cornesti, Stefan Voda şi Cahul, Soroca, Falesti, Bravicea, „Codrii”, Baltata, Leova, Comrat, Ceadir-Lunga) AIIS „Pogoda”. The automatic stations allow the automatic and non-stop record of temperature, air humidity, wind speed and veracity, soil temperature at 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm depth.
In 2016 was carried out the modernization of the national meteorological network. At the 14 meteorological stations were installed new automatic weather stations, that measure all basic meteorological characteristics, including the amount of precipitations.
Also, actinometrical observations are made at Chisinau station (direct solar radiation, diffuse, summary, radiation balance and surface albedo).
Meteorologicalle observations at posts are carried out at 6a.m. and p.m. (GMT) on the following meteorological elements:
- air temperature (maximal, minimal);
- snow layer (depth, density, water reserves);
- stmospheric phenomena.
In 2016, in various parts of the country were installed 32 mini-stations automatic that measure temperature and air humidity, soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm and the amount of precipitations.
The weather stations and posts carry out non-stop observations on the hazardous meteorological phenomena.
The agro meteorological observations in the Republic of Moldova are carried out on 13 weather stations and 19 agrometeorological posts.
The observation of the following parameters is carried out:
1. Temperature in the farmlands soil layers:
- at the tillering node;
- at a 5 cm depth;
- at a 10 cm depths.
2. Soil humidity:
- instrumental at a 0-20 cm depth;
- instrumental at a 0-50 cm depth;
- instrumental at a 100 cm depth;
- visually in the superior layer of the soil.
3. Observations and measurements of the soil and snow layer state during the cold season:
- depth of ground freeze;
- depth of ground thaw;
- thickness and density of the snow layer on the farmlands in the winter season.
4. Development phases of the crops.
5. Observations on the crops state by determining the:
- sowings density;
- plants height;
- stern and potato bulbs growth;
- sugar beet and fodder swede roots growth;
- multiannual plants, sowed plants and mixed plants eight growth.
6. Determination of the crops production elements.
7. Analyses of the crops production elements.
8. Observations on the crops during the cold season:
- autumn observation on the autumn crops and multiannual plants;
- spring observations on the autumn crops and multiannual plants;
- wood ripening of the trees and vineyards during autumn;
- determination of the viability of the autumn crops and multiannual plants during winter;
- determination of the viability of fruit trees and vineyard sticks during winter.
9. Observations on the damage of sowings due to unfavorable meteorological phenomena, agricultural pests and diseases:
- determination of the crops damage due to several factors during the active vegetation period of the plants;
- observations on the grains and straw humidity, germination of grains during harvesting the cereal crops;
- determination of the weed spread.
10. Observations on the field works.
11. General visual estimation of the crops vegetation state.
12. Quantitative estimation of the crops vegetation state.